## PunnetT Squares

1/30/2013

Fig. 1
Punnett Squares are often used by geneticists to determine the possible results and probability when different levels of dominant and recessive alleles are mixed. Punnett Squares are traditionally drawn with the dominant allele first. Also, tradition dictates that the female is usually on the top, while the male is on the left, although neither of those has an effect on the overall outcome of the square. Punnett Squares can be very helpful, and the picture labeled Figure 1 above is an example of one.

As dominant traits are symbolized with a capital letter, while recessive traits are symbolized with a lower one, it can be seen that a homozygous (the word for something with two identical alleles for a trait) dominant, and a homozygous recessive set of organisms are being crossed. As seen in the actual square above, the results will all be heterozygous (the word for something with two different alleles for a trait). This means that while the offspring will all look like they are homozygous dominant, they have a hidden recessive trait that will show up in the next generation.

## Genetic Jewelry

1/23/2013

To make DNA replications out of beads and wire, you first need to gather supplies. You need about 1 meter of metallic wire, six beads of red, six of green, six of blue, six of gold, 22 white beads, and 24 gold beads. After that, you need to take the a yellow, white, yellow, and red bead and string them on the wire in that order. Then you must take the opposite side, and do the same but with a green bead instead of  red. Then do you best to center the beads.

After that, take one end of the wire and thread it through the first yellow bead on the opposite side. Pull it through almost completely, and then do the same with the other end, and other yellow bead. After you have done that, finish pulling the treads through. Then thread a yellow, white, and gold set of beads on the wire, and a yellow, white and blue set on he other side. Pull the ends of the wire through the gold beads again, and continue the yellow, white, color pattern, making sure to match red, green; and blue, gold.

Due to the natural fault of human memory, and the limited time I had to write this post, my instructions may be incorrect or incomplete, so please find another source to compare me with if you intend to replicate this project.

## Struggle in Science

1/16/2013

One concept that I struggled with in Science was, for a short while, the vocabulary. It would take me a few days to learn the vocab at first, but then would have to think extra in the meantime. Once I started using Quizlet more, my problems with vocabulary were much less common. One time, I struggled with learning the meanings of cell parts and organelles. After the edible cell project, I reviewed them some more and got to know them better.

I didn't really struggle with much else, but a few other students in my class had a hard time with ratios and averages. They had to work harder in while the tried to grasp the concept, but it was easier for them after they had. One mistake that was made was that students would sometimes divide when averaging by a different number than they were supposed to. This was especially commonly in problems that included a zero.

## JJ S.

These are themes given by my science teacher that I respond to every Wednesday.